'Ardrey delivers a bombshell... fascinating stuff'
- Los Angeles Times

'A brilliant piece of detective work... enthralling'
- Scots Magazine

Nov 1, 2017




30th March 2016

Name: D****
Email Address: l*****@aol.com

Message: ...I read your book Finding Arthur and loved it.

Thank you.


7th March 2016

Name: S****
Email Address: s****12*1@gmail.com
Message: I live in Finland. I bought a book called Finding Merlin - the truth behind the legend. And I read it. It was well written and it told so much details about that legend.

13th December 2015

Both my brother and I were excited to hear that you have been working on a follow up to Finding Arthur... Both my brother and myself look at the books you have written (and assume what you have still to publish) as being of value to Scottish history and standing in the world...
Saor Alba!

27th November 2015


Hello Adam:

My contacting you... is... [because] over the summer...[I had an] argument/debate I had with my brother over the some of the contents of Finding Arthur. We had both recently re-read Finding Arthur and had taken 2 different reactions to it.  My reaction was to your chapter concerning Camelot while my brother was intrigued by your closing chapter re the meaning and roots of Aryan and the mention of the runes on the island in the Baltic...Cheers and hope to hear from you soon.

P**** K****

(Questions asked and answered.)

24th November 2015

Name: M***** C**** C*******

Email Address: ***@m******campbell.com
Message: Dear Mr Ardrey, your book finding is very interesting...I spent many months on the Isle of Iona...During one summer trip I stayed for six weeks in the abbey and slept in a 8 ft square monks cell... Your book has given some interesting ideas regarding Arthur, Iona, and the Campbell's. I would be very interested to read what you know of the Druids of Iona...
Regards M******

California, USA

AA Full answers to several questions were provided.

3rd November 2015

From: R***** B**** [t****_*i@hotmail.com]
Sent: 03 November 2015 14:32
To: Adam Ardrey
Subject: query


As I was reading (for the 3rd time) Finding Arthur ...I find it interesting that there seems to be more people believing in a Scottish Arthur.

I would like you to know that I have been a real fan of yours since first picking up Finding Merlin.  I really like your logic; the lawyer/judge really shows through.  You had mentioned a Finding Camelot, any progress on that?

B** B****

[AA - This email came with a query - this query has been answered.]

29th October 2015


Another potential tourist




“I thought you had the most convincing argument on the [Expedition Unknown USA TV] show and it was interesting to see the area, especially the "camelot"… How far is the area that Arthur and Merlin inhabited from Cowal? [This question has been answered.]… If you were coming to Scotland and could design a sightseeing trip in the areas around Port Patrick and Cowal, where would you go and what would you see?... Lots of questions, any answers appreciated. [All questions answered.]



23rd October 2015 

Name: J****
Email Address: j****s******@gmail.com
Message: Hi Adam, 
I am a Scot living in the USA and I caught you on Expedition Unknown last night up Dunadd Fort with Josh Gates. 
I very much enjoyed hearing your opinions on the history... [Dunadd is] a very special place! 
I am very interested to read your books! 
All the best, 

2nd April 2015

From: USA p******_t*******@verizon.net


I cannot say how wondrously accurate Finding Arthur is… [this writer kindly said, I had done] great service in connecting everything together.


t April 2015

Name: K**** D**

Email Address:USA  k**9***@gmail.com
Message: I really enjoyed your book, Finding Arthur, it opened so much truth and history that has been missing to us for all these years. I also liked how in many of your conclusion you applied Occam's Razor, and it makes so much sense. Great research and thank you for uncovering the truth.

16th March 2015

From: A***** G**** f*******@idnet.com

Sent: 16 March 2015 16:55

Subject: Finding Arthur

Dear Adam Ardrey,

... I am reading your very interesting book...

16th March 2015

Name: c**** g******
Email Address: c******g******@mac.com
Message: Mr. Ardrey, I very much liked both Finding Merlin and Finding Arthur. Wikipedia has a lot of entries that need updating! Maybe that could be your next project.

(I wrote back to CG and said I did not know how to add to Wiki. but that it was a good idea.)

23rd February 2015

Name: K***** Y********

Email Address: k**********@juno.com
Message: Big fan of both your books. I've been intrigued by Arthur, Merlin and Grail legends for decades....
Thanks, again.


17th February 2015 (from Germany)


... your book helps to spread out the information on an Arthur from Scotland. The evidence is so proof that there is not any doubt about it...


11th February 2015

From - G****** S******* (from Brazil)

...I read your book finding merlin, and I'm sure : [it] is the best on the subject. I am a big fan of merlin and arthur among others, and I'm eager to see the films and arthur books to come.


10th February 2015

From I*** G*******

Cheers Adam!

I must say that I find your case for Arthur MacAedan compelling. I have quietly assumed that Arthur was Gododdin. But I find your proposed Cat Celydon confederates with Arthur as leader very logical. And of course your route to Tribuit takes us neatly to the old ramparts of Roxburgh which has many rumours of Arthur whistling about it! It would make aq great day tour from Edinburgh!


8th February 2015 


Hello Adam

I have just come across your site. How fascinating...


7th November 2014

Name: Ashley
Email Address: a*********@*****.com
Message: Hello Mr. Ardrey!
I have been reading your Finding Arthur, and have found it amazing! I enjoy many of the arguments you bring up. I have a huge interest in history, and must admit to a mild obsession with King Arthur... I agree that Arthur Mac Aedan was very probably the historical Arthur, but I do have a few questions about a few of your theories... 

[These questions were asked and answered.]

10th October 2014


Dear Adam

I have just been reading Finding Arthur, having been recommended to do so by P****** T*******, seanacchie for M*******.  S******* are connected to Clan M*******, with footsteps accordingly back to Dunardry, Dunnadd, and Ireland.

Finding Arthur has been an amazing learning experience for me, for the history, the stripping aside of the agendas and propaganda of early writers (while finding and pursuing the kernel of any contained truth), and also for your rigorous analytical skills in doing so.


 A magnificent read as well.,,


24th August 2014

Adam, finished "Finding Arthur", very, very good! Loved it. 

C**** A*****

30th June 2014


I just finished reading Finding Merlin yesterday and the day before, I ordered Finding Arthur which arrived last night. I just finished it tonight - couldn't put it down. Both of them are absolutely wonderful and very well worked out. An enormous amount of detective work and dedication.

I can see you are not enamored with the church and it's methods past and probably present and neither am I. So, I'd just like to say well done for speaking your mind on that front.

Can I ask one question? [this Q was asked and answered].

We should take a leaf out of the Church method of working and now flood the market with books about the Scottish Arthur! Only this time they will be factual.

Thanks very much for an excellent read.

Kind regards

R***** M*******


13th May 2014

Name: J***** K P***
Email Address: j*****kp***@gmail.com
Message: Hello, my name is J***** and I am very interested in your books and your research. I too am a Merlin seeker and scholar though my interests are a bit more magical that yours are I think :) I'm planning a UK pilgrimage for 2015 that should eventually turn into a book about my spiritual journey in the path of Merlin and I have added a lot of sites to visit that I hadn't know previously thanks to your book and blogs...
Thanks and keep up the good work!
J***** K P***
San Francisco, CA


29th April 2014


I finished the book last week. I really enjoyed it and thought that your arguments were very well presented and followed a logic that would be difficult to argue with. I have recommended the book to some of my Irish colleagues who have an interest in Irish history.



8th April 2014

Name: r** d*****
Email Address: r********00@gmail.com
Message: just read "finding arthur" - now need to locate a copy of "finding merlin" - fine job of grounding the arthuriad in the people and places of the times. "arthur" and "aneirin" being use names/nicknamesmakes perfect sense...

11th April 2014

C***** C****** S******

I am writing regarding the book, Finding Merlin. My 14 year old daughter recently checked the book out from our local library. She loves the book but found that the title is misspelled on the slipcover/spine. 
When she's done with this book she's going back for Arthur. 

[On the cover of the USA Edn. Merlin is spelled 'Merln' - a glitch got us - such is life. Adam Ardrey]

7th April 2014

D**** H*******

I'm finishing up Finding Arthur and I wanted to tell you that I love it. Re: literary triplets (269), this is a common occurrence in Native American tale telling and I suspect probably quite common in most oral traditions. Repeating important items three times is a way to effectively teach the listener.



24th February 2014

L**** on For Argyll (On-line news)

From someone who had read Finding Arthur -

"...all references to battles, place names, Iona and especially to Merlin, make such sense. It all seems obvious. I am now a firm believer that the real Arthur lived and fought in Argyll (as well as other areas in Scotland)..." 

Audio Book

22nd October 2014

From Italy

Name: G******

Email Address: g******.g******@libero.it
Message: Hi, I'm really interested in your books... above all in "Finding Merlin". But I'm afraid my English is not good enough to understand everything. So, here is my question: do you know if your books will be translated into Italian? Thanks, best regards, G******

I replied to G****** 22nd October 2014.

21st September 2014

From - j*****d*******@hotmail.com

Dear Adam,

...I have seen your excellent website, and looked at your books…amazing! Very well researched and presented! I wish you all the best in your work…a Scottish King Arthur! Well done!

Very best wishes 

J***** M. E**** D*******

29th January 2014


I was so pleased by your prompt... reply to my e-mail!... it is a rare rainy day here in southwest Florida... my husband and I have traveled to Glasgow, Edinburgh and the border country of Scotland several times over the years on pheasant "shoots" and love the country and the people.  J** was saying just last evening that we should travel back to Scotland and see a different part of the country (Argyll and the Highlands?)... J***

28th January 2014

D**** T*****

Email Address: dt******@yahoo.com
Message: I bought and read the new US edition of this book on the advice of our clan (MacTavish) association... I... did find a compelling and well-researched case for the historic basis of a real-life... Merlin of late sixth century Glasgow, and ample evidence that the real Arthur was a Manau Scot and not from southern England as the authors of conventional retellings of the legends would have it.
A masterful historical detective job, cutting through centuries of political and religious propaganda to unveil the truth behind the myths.
A must-read for Arthur, Merlin and Camelot buffs. 

24th January 2014

G*** W*****

"This was brilliant: "... the Old Way engendered individuality, and so disputation, both of which are good for humanity and bad for those in charge". I loved this book and am fortunate to have travelled to many of the Arthurian places in Scotland described in it."

3rd January 2014

Dear Mr. Ardrey,

I read Finding Merlin last year and have just finished Finding Arthur. Rather, I should say that I listened to them as I am blind and I rely on my Kindle Text to Speech facility. It struggles a bit with Celtic names but I was able to follow most of your arguments. I have long believed that any historical figure behind the Arthur legends was probably based in Scotland and I am delighted that your efforts have produced a viable candidate. I must say that your overall arguments have persuaded me that you are probably correct. I must congratulate you on such a difficult and well –argued investigation...

2nd January 2014

Name: E S******

Email Address: e******_s******@hotmail.com
Message: Reading your book at the moment very interesting. Take a look at assessment online concerning Knappers farm at Drumry near Clydebank. Excavated in 1937 and thought to be the miniature Stonehenge in wood, unfortunately the war stopped work and then it was destroyed by the building of the A82 road. Some of the items found are in Hunterian Museum.

2nd January 2014

Name: T** McG*****
Hi Adam. Got your latest book for Christmas and still in the midst of reading it. I have always been a bit 50/50 about Arthur MacAedan but I find finding Arthur very convincing. Your highlighting of Arthur being airbrushed out of history then rebranded for the Christian establishment really hits the mark and we can see modern parallels in the way the right wing establishments in the UK and USA constantly discredit and attack anything they see as being left wing through misinformation and downright subterfuge. Just shows, things don't change much. The template of Arthur's world is now starting to fit into its proper location thanks to the work of writers like yourself who are who are hacking through 1500 years of establishment b******. I must check out Dunardey next time I am up in Knapdale. 
Thoroughly enjoying your book. T**.

6th December 2013

... I totally believe in your hypothesis that MacAyden [sic] is truly the basis for the Arthurian Legand...Adam you won again...Keep writing man...
Happy Holidays.
California, USA.

24th November 2013

If you haven't gotten and read "Finding Arthur" you're missing out on one of the great detective stories of the times!

C****** S*****

Arizona, USA

22nd November 2013

Got the book yesterday and I am reading in my spare time...can't put it down. David Carroll sold me on a Scottish Arthur....and your book is right along those lines. Thank you for the hard work and research!

J**** R*******

22nd November 2013
Hello Adam;
...Just wanted to let you know that I just received 2 copies of the new book and can't wait to start reading.
I bought the second book to mail to  my brother who is as interested in this subject as I have become. It was my brother who introduced me to this topic by sending me a copy of the Merlin book. So we will have come full circle!
...I believe we need to get the message out that Scots history is not as basic as many believe, and I might even go so far as to state, our history was probably stolen from us...
... I will email you again when I have finished the book. I have a feeling I might have a couple of questions or observations.
... I am especially fascinated by the revelation of you having been able to pinpoint the locations of the 12 battles. If this is correct I think it could potentially change everything for Scotland and our history.


P**** K****

21st November 2013

Hi Adam
…I greatly enjoy reading history books... Your first book really interested me as I fish on the… water between Drumelzier and Dawyk and had never realised until reading your first book that any of the references to Merlin in the area had any veracity. The key thing in your books for me is the encouragement to get out there and have a look for yourself… your books have got me… looking at the landscapes differently.  My kids also love your books and we were recently on top of the Meldon Hills questioning why we have so little information on these places... your books are important as they provide a very different perspective to the hum drum stuff that's regurgitated in most books...  I also think that people should own up to where their perspectives come from - so again your writing is very clear on the different ways that people have tried to create a fixed story to meet their own ends. The exciting thing is that you have opened up so many different avenues - some of your arguments are more convincing than others but this is as it should be…

J*** D****



26th June 2017

I had a great time on Sunday being interviewed on the summit of Dunadd for the TV show What on Earth? It was a delight to be interviewed by the enormously knowledgeable Andrew Gough. 

My only reservation was that we kept some tourists away from the footprint cut into the stone. I tried to bring as many them as I could up to see it: French, Australians and Americans.

I explained to them that this was where the historical Arthur took a sword from a stone, and that no magic or anything of the supernatural was involved. They were all interested, who would not be? (or, maybe, they were just polite?).

There is no down-side, whether  am right or wrong. You can't have too much history to see and consider and discuss, unless, of course you are the local historian who once told me - We have enough history in Argyll.


23rd June 2017

Argyll, Sword & Stone, and Stephen Fry

Off to Argyll on Sunday to film for a documentary series called What On Earth? They are interested in the fact that the historical Arthur, actually, really did take a sword from the Stone of Dunadd, and all without magic being involved.

I will try to spark interest in some of the the other Arthur-sites in Scotland but, as per Stephen Fry, “Information is all around us, now more than ever before in human history. You barely have to stir yourself to find things out. The only reason people do not know much is because they do not care to know. They are incurious. Incuriosity is the oddest and most foolish failing there is.”

Fingers crossed that the WOE people are curious.

Round Table anyone? 

29th May 2017


VisitScotland has listed my TOP TEN Arthurian sites -  


Or, just go to VisitScotland

Or, www.visitscotland.com

And punch in Arthur.

Now, we have to wait and see if the Scottish Tourist industry follows VSc's lead. 

You can lead a horse to water...

13th May 2017

Herald Magazine

King Arthur: the Legend of the Sword

Today's Herald Magazine has four pages about my findings relevant to the historical Arthur. This piece is gauged to coincide with the next week's release of the first of Warner Bros King Arthur films. 

For the first time, a King Arthur film is out, at the same time as the historical facts of the matter of Arthur are known.

At the cinema you can enjoy, what, from the trailers, looks like a spectacular Arthur story, in which Arthur takes a sword from a stone: that's what fictional Arthurs do. 

In fact, the stone from which, in 574CE, the historical Arthur took a sword is still there to be seen - it is at Dunadd, Argyll, Scotland. No magic or anything of the supernatural was involved in this historical event.

I have explained this several times on this website. There is a photograph of the stone from which the historical Arthur really did take a sword (Stone of Dunadd) in the Gallery.  

30th April 2017

Arthur and Ayr - Ayrshire Post

The Ayrshire Post contacted me on Friday to ask if Arthur had an Ayr connection.

He does.

The earliest surviving reference to Arthur is in the poem Y Gododdin; written in Edinburgh in about 600CE.

That is, 25 miles east of where Arthur Mac Aedan died, four years after he died. 

Y Gododdin refers to the warriors of Aeron.

This reference is in a verse that also refers to the Novantae, the people of Galloway, south of Ayr; the people of Edinburgh, east of Ayr; and the people of Dumbarton, north of Ayr.

The footnote to the translation I used, suggested Aeron was in Wales! Not Ayr, Scotland, but Cardigan, Wales.

Ayr, in the middle of the Galloway/Dumbarton/Edinburgh triangle is not mentioned. 

This is why everyone thinks Arthur was a man of the south of Britain; when, in fact, he was a man of Scotland.

Academics in the south of Britain know too little about Scotland, and don't care to know more.

Academics in Scotland are too afraid of the label Kaleyard to say boo to a goose. 

21st April 2017

King Arthur: Legend of the Sword 2017.

I am really looking forward to the release of KALOTS in May. I have seen the trailer and it looks like it will be spectacular. 

Obi Wan Kenobi & Luke Skywalker and Prof. Dumbledore & Frodo Baggins, are simply rehashes of the real thing: Merlin and Arthur are the real thing.

For the first time, we have an Arthur-film released after the historical Arthur has been identified for the first time. This finding of Arthur in history complements the new film perfectly.

Arthur Mac Aedan is the historical Arthur. Anyone else got and historical Arthur? 

The stone from which the historical Arthur really took a sword is still there to be seen. (Nothing of the supernatural is involved.)

Anyone else got such a stone?

This stone is smack-bang next to a place called Badon? (Badon is the legendary Arthur's 12th Nennius-battle. You can Google this stuff.)

Anyone else able to identify two, or even one, Nennius battle, with an historical Arthur attached? (Google-google.) I have identified all twelve Nennius-battles. They make geographical and historical sense in Scotland.  

Case closed.

Unless you know better. 

19th April 2017 

King Arthur: Legend of the Sword & Scottish tourism

VisitScotland has asked me to prepare a BlogPost.

We will be using the 'fact' that the historical Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan to promote tourism in Scotland. At least, it is a proven fact for me (if it is not a proven fact for you, I simply refer you to the evidence, then tell me I am wrong).

VisitScotland recognise that tourists are interested in visiting film locatiosn and the historical sites where the actual events, really occurred.

VisitScotland recognise that England and Wales make £millions p.a. out of Arthur and that Scotland does not. 

Who wouldn't want to see the real, the actual stone from which Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, really, actually took a sword?

(No magic, no miracles, nothing of the supernatural involved in any of this.)

24th March 2017

Tweeting History

My publishers told me to tweet, to promote my books. First Millenium, I am okay. Third Millenium, I am not so hot.

I started tweeting about my books a week ago, but soon started tweeting about other things: as if people needed to know what I was thinking about other things. It turns out I am as self-centred as everyone else. I am going to stop... soon.

Re-writing History

You have been sold a pig in a poke.

History is not what you have been told. You have been told there was no historical Arthur, or, if there was, that he cannot be identified, or, if he can be identfied, that he was a composite figure, made up of several men, none of whom was called Arthur.

It is really dead simple. Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan, born c.559, died 596CE. He lived in what is now Scotland. 

Can I prove it? You tell me what would prove it for you, and we will see.

Avalon? Badon battle? Camlann? Douglas battles? Excalibur?

No magic. No supernatural stuff. Facts and logic or nothing.

17th February 2017

Scots Magazine, March 2017.

King Arthur movie and the history behind it.

Four pages in the March 2017 edition of The Scots Magazine. Looks great. TSM has covered some of the basics - Where is Avalon? What about the Twelve Arthur-Battles? &c. 

There is enough evidence, in my books, to prove on the balance of probabilities, no, damn it, to prove beyond reasonable doubt, that the legendary Arthur was based on the historical Arthur Mac Aedan of Scotland (c.559 to 596 CE).

No one, I repeat, no one has identified two of Nennius' Twelve Arthur Battles with reference to an historical Arthur. I have identified all twelve and fixed them all in sensible historical and geographical settings. 

The movies, well, the movies have explosions and elephants?!

Still, all good fun.

It was said in the film The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance - When the legend becomes fact, print the legend. 

I say we can go with both.

28th December 2016

Arthur was in England! (But only for a few weeks.)

Yesterday a reader kindly wrote -

"Just wanted to add once again how much I loved your book. I read your blog and you stated that Arthur was in England for a few weeks, I'm curious and would love to know more about this. I love learning history, but it's hard to comb through what's true and what isn't. Thank you for lighting the path to the truth about Arthur."

I answered K****'s question today. This was a lengthy answer and so I made it a Blog on this website.

Put briefly, Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, fought at the Battle of Arderydd. This battle was fought on the south bank of the River Esk. The River Esk forms the modern Scotland/England border.

It may be Arthur was in, what is now, England for only a few days.

When I said Arthur was in England for a few weeks, I may have exaggerated Arthur's England connection. 

But that's it. That's the sum total of Arthur in England.

Unless you know better. 

20th November 2016

The Times (The Histories) They Are A Changing?

Our neighbours, the English and the Welsh, don't have an historical Arthur; not one person called Arthur, or anything like Arthur, who might have been the man the legend is based upon.

However, England and Wales have thriving tourist industries based on the Arthurian canon.

Scotland has an historical Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan (born c.559 died 596 CE) and all the evidence anyone could wish for to back up a claim that he was the historical Arthur, the man the legends are based upon.

But, Scotland has no tourist industry based on the Arthurian canon.

Not yet.

Not yet.


20th November 2016

"The Filthy Lioness"

The woman Gildas called a 'filthy lioness' is known to every Glasgow school child (see below of this same date).

She is the 'adulteress queen' commemorated by the fish and the ring on Glasgow's coat of arms.

She was the twin-sister of the man called Merlin.

She was Gwyneth, also known as Languoreth (The Golden One); the Swan-necked woman; and the Lioness of Damnonia (Strathclyde).

She was almost written out of history because she was a woman, and because she was not a Christian (Christians wrote the histories). 

She was also, perhaps, the greatest woman in the history of Scotland.


As for the filthy lioness stuff, directed at a woman because she was a woman, as I once heard said in my old home town, Coatbridge; Plus ca change... err, catches the worm.

20th November 2016

Whoosh, and Scots history is gone.

The established view is that the historical Arthur was a man of England or Wales.

The evidence says the historical Arthur was a man of Scotland.

And so, evidence is changed, to suit the established view.

For example:

In Gildas, 6th century, De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae (On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain)[1] the text reads:

            “…est immundae leaenae Damnonia [Sic] tyrannicus…”

The translation reads:

            “… tyrant whelp of the filthy lioness of Dumnonia…”

The text says Damnonia, that is, Strathclyde, Scotland.

The translation says Dumnonia, that is, Devon/Cornwall, England.


Evidence that points to Arthur in Scotland has been transposed to England.

[1] Arthurian Sources, Vol. 7, edited and translated by Prof. Michael Winterbottom, Oxford Univ., Phillimore & Co. Ltd, Chichester, England, 2002. 

16th November 2016

The Mystery Unravelled?  

Well… err, no.

I have just read Chris Barber’s King Arthur: The Mystery Unravelled (2016).

Chris says the historical Arthur was the Welsh Arthwyr of the Silures, and an Arthmael, and an Armel, although, he also says that, “in Cornwall [this Arthwyr] appears to have been confused with…Count Gwythian” (p.25).

I suppose I should just be grateful that I am not in Cornwall, because I am already confused.

Apparently this Welsh 'Arthur' lived until he was eighty and was still fighting battles in his seventies.

The man must have had nine lives (five more than the above four Chris writes about). 

Seriously? Bits and pieces of four men cobbled together and, even then... next to nothing (except the two names do begin with Art and...?).

In Scotland we have Arthur Mac Aedan. One legendary Arthur. One historical Arthur. Occam's Razor, Chris, Occam's Razor. 

This Welsh 'Arthur' has no sword in the stone connection.

Arthur Mac Aedan of Scotland has a (non-magical) sword in the stone connection.

This Welsh 'Arthur' has no Merlin connection.

Arthur Mac Aedan was a contemporary of ‘Merlin’ (and there was nothing supernatural about him either).

The Welsh 'Arthur' has next to nothing.

Chris, if I have been unfair, let me know. 

I will make reasonable space available to you on this website.

1st November 2016

Warner Bros 'King' Arthur

The trailer for this film has elephants in it. There were no elephants in Arthur's 6th century.

Worse, the scene is set in England. Arthur was never in England (except once, and that was for only a few weeks - how do I know this? If you want to know, ask).

Let's take something relevant to the legendary Arthur and see if it makes sense when reconsidered with reference to the historical Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan (c.559 - 596CE).

The legendary Arthur is said to have been buried on the Isle of Avalon, an island said to be set in the Western Sea.

This was Iona, the burial place of Scottish kings (duh!) set in the Western Sea (duh!) and the burial place of Arthur Mac Aedan's family. 

Case Closed?

30th September 2016

Vive la... non, laissez la differance mourir.

Earlier this week, out of the blue, an American themepark company kindly said it was "Honored to extend to [me] a formal invitation to a seat on... [it's] Board of Advisors."

I write history but that does not mean I have to be po-faced about it.

History can sit happily with the literature and the films and the TV shows and the novels. There is no reason why history cannot be engaging on many levels. Neither is there any reason why it should not also be commercial.

Some time ago I contacted a Scottish tour company and asked if they were interested in the fact that the legendary Arthur was a man of Scottish history. No reply.

The above highlights the difference between almost every American and all too many Scots.

This is the reason why Scotland should be independent and this is also the reason why Scotland should not be independent.

If we are to make a go of independence, we need to be prepared to go for it; or, at least, to be interested in what 'it' is.

For example, the historical Arthur Mac Aedan was the man who became the legendary Arthur, for a start.

16th September 2016

Scotland and Warner Bros King Arthur - Tourism

Scotland is to promote Scotland as a tourist destination using Warner Bros King Arthur trilogy of films, under the aegis of the British tourist body - the British tourist body!

Pointless, pitiful and typical.

Whither Scotland?

For centuries the hunt for the historical Arthur has been concentrated on the south and what have they found? They have found nothing.

To their credit, the people of the south, having no non-fictional history to go on, have built a tourist industry based on the fictional literature.

Now, it has been proved that Arthur / Merlin were men of Scotland (by me). 

The Scottish tourist body expects this to be debated? Seriously?

If it were to be debated, and if it became clear (as it would) that Arthur/Merlin were men of the north and not of the south, then Arthur-tourism in the south would stop, and start up again here in the north. 

Fat chance of a debate being allowed.

We should not be asking to be allowed to debate the matter - we should just make our claim and if anyone gainsays us...

But no, the Scottish tourist body will play its alloted part under the aegis... no, under the thumb of the British tourist body.

Or will it?

2nd August 2016

Warner Bros’ King Arthur trilogy trailer.


It will be no surprise to anyone that the trailer shows a Southern British Arthur pulling a magical sword from a magical stone. The sword is shown stuck into the stone.

In fact there was no Arthur in any possible Age of Arthur in the south of Britain. (The real, historical Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan of Scotland - born c. 559 died 596 CE.)

In fact there are no such things as magical swords or magical stones, far less combinations of the two that can recognise members of the aristocracy.

In fact, in an inauguration ceremony in 574 CE, Arthur Mac Aedan placed his foot into the footprint cut into the stone on the summit of the hillfort of Dunadd, Argyll, Scotland, and was given a sword to hold, just as the Queen was given a sword to hold at her coronation.

When, as part of the inauguration ceremony, Arthur Mac Aedan stepped out of the footprint cut into the stone, holding the sword, he literally took a sword from a stone.

I have been told - That is pretty obvious.

Yeah, well, yes it is... Now! But it wasn't for five hundred years during which people were trying to find the historical Arthur.  


Taking swords from stones was standard Scottish stuff.

The stone of Dunadd from which the historical Arthur really did take a sword is still there to be seen.

There is a photographic image of the Dunadd Stone in the Gallery of this Website. 

Venice 11th July 2016

On 9th July in St. Mark's Square, Venice, a Venetian writer, Dr. Piero Favero, gave me a copy of his latest book, a book about Venice and the Veneti, L'Alba dei Veneti.

My books, Finding Merlin and Finding Arthur, are referred to in the bibliography. 

Over a glass of wine we discussed our different ideas. 

A book of history, a glass of wine and someone with different ideas beside me in... 

... Omar Khayaam wrote - beside me in the wilderness.

I was luckier than Omar, I was in Venice, the most beautiful (human-made) place that I have ever seen.

30th June 2016

Finding History

In 2000, in the National Library of Scotland, I found a book that had been privately printed in Paris in 1768; in this book I found one item of evidence that... got me thinking.

I went on to get to know 6th century Scottish, English and Welsh history and the Arthurian fiction too. I was lucky because I already knew something of the geography of Scotland, because I live there. 

Then I thought about the evidence and the evidence fell into place, and it all made sense. 

Finding Merlin followed in 2007 and Finding Arthur in 2013.

The Old Guard

I engaged with the 'scholars' on the 'scholarly' American university website Arthuriana/Arthurnet until, in 2012 (after 25 years). the site imploded.

They could not answer any of my questions and I could answer all of theirs. (All this is still there to be seen online.)

In 2015, at the Glasgow Celtic Congress I debated with a history professor who claimed he had found the historical Arthur. "I bring to the people of Scotland the gift of Arthur" - he said. He didn't. I had already done this.

According to the three Glasgow academics who approached me after the event, I had the rights of it.

For example -

The generally accepted litmus test for an historical Arthur is the battle of Badon. This history professor said that the Badon battlefiled could not be found, and that, consequentlly, it was not an Arthur-battle.


I pointed out that if he went to Dunadd, Argyll, where, I say, Arthur (Arthur Mac Aedan) took a sword from a stone (in 574CE) and looked south, he would be looking at the battlefield of Badon.

My Badon-battlefield is marked on Ordnance Survey maps as Badden. It was named after Arthur Mac Aedan's cousin Baodan.


One advantage I had over this history professor was that he could not point to an individual historical Arthur.

I could.

I had Arthur Mac Aedan, born c.559 died 596CE.


No magic was involved in the sword and stone event - it was Scottish ceremonial practice that got magicked-up.

28th June 2016

Magic & Romance 

Writers like Geoffrey of Monmouth and Thomas Malory added magic and romance to their books for the same reason modern film-makers add CGI and romance to their movies - spectacle and romance are commercial, they sell.

My books, whether I am right or wtong, are evidence-based - there is no magic or romance in my work.

When I explained my working method to my wife - I take the evidence and take away all the magic and romance...

She said - Playing to your strengths I see.


22nd June 2016

Tim Clarkson's Scotland's Merlin (2013)

Tim follows me in saying that the evidence suggests that the man called Merlin was an historical character and a man of Scotland.

I know of three other non-fiction books, now being written, that follow my lead - Justin's in the USA; Kurt's in Germany and Piero's in Italy.

Signe of the USA is writing a trilogy of novels based on my work. 

Things are beginning to happen.

15th June 2016

Orlando & Arthur and Merlin.

9th June 2016

Arthur & Moses

6th June 2016

Not a Sausage

5th June 2016

History Deniers and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance.

30th May 2016

The Battlefield of Glein

How a German scholar found the legendary Arthur's battlefield of Glein, after I had missed it when it was right under my nose.

22nd May 2016

Merlin the Christian!?

Fat chance.

19th May 2016

Merlin's Grave

Drumelzier-Dunipace in central Scotland not Stobo in the Scottish Borders and certainly not in England (Duh!)

19th May 2016

Merlin: A Medieval Legend and its Dark Age Origins by Tim Clarkson.

New book re Merlin in Scotland - something I have already proved - and re Merlin being a Christian - something I have already proved he was not.


Click on an image in the GALLERY to see it enlarged

The only image of an Arthurian battle-site (Bassas) is now in the Gallery. 

Images of Camlann (Arthur's last battle) and Avalon are in the Gallery. (Click on them to see them big.) 


Audio Book of Finding Merlin - Audible Books UK 2013.


The legendary Arthur is usually said to have been a Christian English King. In reality, he was an historical figure, a man of the old way of the druids, a Scot and a warlord.

Merlin too lived in history: he was the pre-eminent druid of the 6th century. Unlike Arthur, Merlin was too closely associated with the old ways of the druids to be Christianised and so he was 'made safe': he was portrayed as an old, avuncular, somewhat scatter-brained figure. He was not like this at all.

Merlin’s twin-sister, the equally important Gwyneth, known as Languoreth (The Golden One), the Lioness of Damnonia and the Swan-necked Woman, was all but written out of history, simply because she was a woman. Typical!

I have written her back into history.

For 1,500 years the Christian Church and its temporal partners-in-power deleted historical evidence anent Arthur and fabricated a legend that, literally, suited their book.

There is an alternative.

In the film The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) it was said, "When the legend becomes fact, print the legend."

The alternative is to print both.

The legends and the facts fit neatly together, when you know where to look; that is,  late 6th century Scotland.

28th December 2016

Katie's Question and the Arderydd Campaign
On 27th December 2016 Katie referred to an earlier Blog I had written and asked how I knew Arthur was only in England for a few weeks.
I replied:

Thank you for your kind words of appreciation. I… appreciate them.

You ask how I know that Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, was in ‘England’ for only few weeks. (Of course, there was no England at the time in issue. Strictly, I should say ‘what is now England’.)

I don’t ‘know’ that Arthur was in England, any more than I ‘know’ that Julius Caesar visited Britain on only two occasions, but, I say, both these statements may be accepted because the evidence points to them both being true.

I take it, for these present purposes, that it is accepted that Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan. Given this, he was a man of Manau (the area about Stirling, in Central Scotland) and, to a lesser extent, Dalriada (Argyll, Western Scotland).

How come I say he was in England? In the criminal law we would look for means, motive and opportunity. Arthur Mac Aedan had the means and the opportunities to go to England, but, why would he? What motive might he have had?

Arthur’s father Aedan allied his Scots and Men of Manau with the Kingdom of Strathclyde when Strathclyde and its allies defeated the people of the Pendragon, Gwenddolau, in the Arderydd campaign. (The earliest reference to ‘Merlin’, in the 573CE Welsh Annals entry, has him at the Battle of Arderydd.) Arthur is not referred to directly in this connection but then he was only about15 years old at the time and so this is not surprising.

The following year, 574CE, Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, was given his first independent command, a relatively minor mopping-up operation that culminated in the first Nennius’ Arthur-battle, the Battle of the River Glein. This was fought on West Loch Tarbert, Argyll, following Aedan’s victory at the battle of Delgon. The actual site of Arthur’s first battle as an independent commander is two miles from Delgon, at Abhainn (River) Gillean.

(There is more evidence that Arthur Mac Aedan was Arthur in the preceding paragraph, than England and Wales have for any other historical Arthur, not that they have a possible historical ‘Arthur’.)

I only mention Glein/Gillean because, the fact that Arthur Mac Aedan had his own command in 574, even thought he was very relatively young, suggests he had some experience of battle, which suggests he was at Arderydd. In the whole circumstances, pertaining at the time, it would be counter-intuitive to suppose he was not at Arderydd.)

Therefore, if Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, was at Arderydd, what does this tell us?

In Finding Merlin I detailed the events leading up to the fall of Gwenddolau’s fort (Carwinley, Caer Gwenddolau). Strathclyde and its allies crossed the River Esk, the modern border, between what is now Scotland and what is now England, and attacked Gwenndolau’s fort from the south. Gwenddolau’s fort was on the south bank of the Esk.

Just south of Gwenddolau’s fort is the small hill, Arthur [sic] Seat. Not to be confused with Arthur’s Seat, Edinburgh. Local tradition clearly associated Arthur with this place, not doubt decades later, after Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, had become famous.

The above and other Arthur-connected names also suggest Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, was at Arderydd, and, not only that, on the ‘English’ side of the River Esk.

For how long? I say ‘a few weeks.’ Maintaining an army in the field was expensive. There was no siege at Arderydd. It is possible the allies crossed the Esk swept round to the south and met the people of the Pendragon all in the space of one day. But, this strikes me as unlikely. Why did Arthur Seat, some few miles away, get that name and not somewhere else, and, why was it called after Arthur if he simply swept through. I suppose the cavalry, with Arthur in the van, arrived first, and waited for the infantry to come up, and then waited and then fought. A few weeks? I suppose I could have said a few days.

There is no known reason Arthur should ever have gone to England again. There is no acceptable evidence relevant to an ‘Arthur’ in England at all, not all that Glastonbury nonsense, not all that Tintagel nonsense, not one piece.

VisitScotland have asked me to outline two Arthurian Tourist Trails. If you think this is a good idea… and you wanted to tell VisitScotland…

In any event, I was pleased to hear from you. Always feel free to ask questions, it is the only way I learn.

Best wishes



Trump and Arthur and me being grumpy

It looks like Trump will be elected President of the United States; and so there is a fair chance that we will all be blown to bits; and so there is something I want to say. 

There are people, usually Christians, that have taken some historical event and added some supernatural elements, and who profess to believe the resultant mix.

It annoys me when they roll their eyes at the possibility that I might, just might have identified the historical Arthur that lies behind the legendary Arthur.

All I have done is taken a legend that has had supernatural elements added to it; deleted the supernatural elements and identified the history that lies behind the legend.

And they roll their eyes.